Semnale comerciale forturi
The plural was also used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia, and from this comes the Welsh place name prefix caer- and English suffixes -caster and -chester; e. Castrorum Filius, "son of the camps," was one of the names used by the emperor Caligula and then also by other emperors. Castroalso derived from Castrum, is a common Spanish family name as well as toponym in Italythe Balkans and Spain and other Hispanophone countries, either by itself or in various compounds such as the World Semnale comerciale forturi Site of Gjirokastër earlier Argurokastro.
The terms stratopedon army camp and phrourion fortification were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively. Description[ edit ] Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum.
A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. The most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castroruma manuscript of 11 pages that dates most probably from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD. Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti, "chief engineers", who requisitioned manual labor from the soldiers at large as required.
Glosar de termeni militari
They could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they probably used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it: tertia castra, quarta castra, etc. The least permanent of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". For the winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of more solid materials, with timber construction gradually being replaced by stone.
Neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability: they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days.
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The largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions. Previously, legions were raised for specific military campaigns and subsequently disbanded, requiring only temporary castra.
DEBLOCAȚI SEMNALELE ZILNICE DE FOREX
From then on many castra of various sizes opțiuni mosbirge established many of which became permanent settlements. Plan of forts[ edit ] Plan of a typical Roman fort. Note the battlements, the Roman arches, the turres. Reconstruction of the specula or vigilarium Germanic burgus"watchtower", a type of castrum, at Rainau-Buch, Germany.
An ancient watchtower would have been câștigați bani rapid pentru noul an by wall and ditch. Vegetius Renatus has semnale comerciale forturi small section on entrenched camps as well.
The terminology varies but the basic plan is the same.
Late Roman fort in Jordan Late Roman Quadriburgium in Hungary The ideal enforced a linear plan for a camp or fort: a square for camps to contain one legion or smaller unit, a rectangle for two legions, each legion being placed back-to-back with headquarters next to each other. Laying it out was a geometric exercise conducted by experienced officers called metatores, who used graduated measuring rods called decempedae "footers" and gromatici who used a gromaa sighting device consisting of a vertical staff with horizontal cross pieces and vertical plumb-lines.
Ideally the process started in the centre of the planned camp at the site of the headquarters tent or building principia.
Streets and other features were marked with coloured pennants or rods. The street plans of various present-day cities still retain traces of a Roman camp, for example Marsala in Sicily, the ancient Lilybaeum, where the name of the main street, the Cassaro, perpetuates the name "castrum".
Wall and ditch[ edit ] Castrum at Masada. Note the classical "playing-card" layout. The Castrum's special structure also defended from attacks. The base munimentum, "fortification" was placed entirely within the vallum "wall"which could be constructed under the protection of the legion in battle formation if necessary.
Galle (oraș), Sri Lanka
The vallum was quadrangular aligned on the cardinal points of the compass. The construction crews dug a trench fossathrowing the excavated material inward, to be formed into the rampart agger.
On top of this a palisade of stakes sudes or valli was erected. The soldiers had to carry these stakes on the march.
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A legion-sized camp always placed towers at intervals along the wall with positions between for the division artillery. Interval[ edit ] Around the inside periphery of the vallum was a clear space, the intervallum, which served to catch enemy missiles, as an access route to the vallum and as a storage space for cattle capita semnale comerciale forturi plunder praeda.
Legionaries were quartered in a peripheral zone inside the intervallum, which they could rapidly cross to take up position on the vallum. Inside of the legionary quarters was a peripheral road, the Via Sagularis, probably a type of "service road", as the saguma kind of cloak, was the garment of soldiers.